“In the “social system of the ancients,” religion was “the absolute master, both in “public and in private life,” and the state was “a religious community”. Individuals, however, practiced the rituals prescribed to them by the state not out of any need for social solidarity or out of an understanding of its efficacy, but due to the respect given to antiquity and to the authority of the state.”
— Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City. It regards how religion in the pre-Christian Roman times is understood in its intertwined relation with the state. As such, we may understand that Socrates was not executed of heresy, but of treason.